At a time when the primitive vegetation was widespread throughout the area now covered by the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park, wolves and even bears were abundant, as was the most threatened wild cat in the world, the Iberian lynx: it is believed that there is an extremely limited number of the latter still surviving.
More abundant in modern times, although often very difficult to spot due to the thick vegetation and the nocturnal habits of many land predators present in the Natural Park, are foxes, badgers, weasels, genets, wild cats and pine martens. In rivers and streams, it is a rare privilege to be able to spot otters and river rats. The most numerous representatives of smaller mammals and rodents are shrews, moles, field and dormice.
Larger mammals that are also hunted under controlled conditions are wild boar and deer, as are hares and rabbits, wood pigeons, partridges and thrushes.
With such a wide covering of vegetation, birdlife is abundant and varied in the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park, and includes: black storks, black vultures, Eurasian eagle owls, short-toed eagles, black and red kites, booted eagles, barn and tawny owls, goldfinches, robins, nightingales, hoopoes, cuckoos, nuthatches, kingfishers and golden orioles, amongst others. Indeed, the area has been classified as a Special Bird Protection Zone.
In the rivers and streams, there is a number of species of fish, toads and frogs, as well as salamanders and newts.