The intense agricultural use of the area, with particular emphasis on olive tree plantations, have caused the transformation of natural vegetation. This said, the limestone composition and the climatic conditions are such that the Natural Park can be considered a transition between the flora of Granada and that of Cordoba, and as a subsequence is home to several endemic species.
Indigenous plants in the Sierra Subbética Natural Park are typically Mediterranean, although of varying ecosystems. Forested areas are divided into two: oak groves accompanied by gorse, hawthorn and spurge, on the most exposed and sunniest areas of the Sierra; and the gall oak, found on the damper and less sunny northern facing slopes, together with Kermes Oak, buckthorn, and wild strawberry trees. Above the wooded areas, the dense vegetation includes Spanish broom and other varieties that are unique to this area of the province.
Altitude plays an important part in the plant life in the Sierra Subbética Natural Park, with different species found at different land heights. Trees and shrubs such as Spanish broom, hawthorn, Montpellier maple flourish above 800 metres, whereas above 1200 metres, several endemisms such as the echinospartum bossier can be spotted.
In spite of the few rivers flowing through the Natural Park, water is still an important element, thanks to natural springs such as the Zambra. The presence of deep canyons, such as the Bailón that overlooks Zuheros, are signs of a much more active river history. The lack of riverine thickets and dense riverbank vegetation is made up for by the appearance of poplars, willows, tares, hawthorns, and blackberry bushes.